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PAPER IN PRESS

Mathematical Modeling of the Gyrotactic Microorganisms of Non Darcian Micropolar Fluid Containing Different Nanoparticles
Author:Nabil T Eldabe, Mahmoud E. Gabr, Khalid K. Ali, Sameh Abdelzaher and A.Z. Zaher
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

In this study, we consider the non-Darcian model of Gyrotactic Microorganisms and electromagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) for micropolar bio viscos fluid containing different kinds of nanoparticles over a stretching plate. The problem is formulated mathematically by a system of non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs). By using suitable transformations, the PDEs system is transformed into a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODE) subjected to appropriate boundary conditions. These equations are solved numerically by using the finite difference method. The model is applied to human blood, as a bio viscos fluid containing four different types of nano-particles such as Copper (Cu), Silver (Ag), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and Titanium dioxide (TiO2). The effects of some parameters on the obtained solutions are discussed numerically and illustrated graphically through a set of figures. The results showed that the momentum for Al2O3-nanoparticles and TiO2-nanoparticles is spreading faster inside the blood than propagating momentum for Cu-nanoparticles, Ag-nanoparticles. The importance of this study comes from its significant applications in many scientific fields, such as nuclear reactors, medicine, and geophysics.

Development and Validation of a Simple High Performance Liquid Chromatography/UV Method for Simultaneous Determination of Urinary Phthalates in Human Urine
Author:Thawiphark Thadsri, Kotchaphan Chooluck, Jiraporn Chingunpitak, Vichit Supornsilchai and Wichit Nosoongnoen
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

This study aimed to develop a simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of four urinary phthalate (PAE) metabolites, including monomethyl PAE (MMP), monoethyl PAE (MEP), mono-n-butyl PAE (MBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) PAE (MEHP). The metabolites were simultaneously analyzed by a simple dilution method with acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH 2.0 followed by filtration. No interfering peaks were observed at the retention time of the investigated analytes. Separation of four PAE metabolites was successfully achieved in less than 16.5 min with good resolution. The linear range of calibration curves for the four analytes were respectively from 10-3,000 ng/mL for MMP and MEP, 20-3,000 ng/mL for MBP and MEHP with correlation coefficient ≥ 0.998. Intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 0.5 to 10.2% and 2.1 to 9.9%; whereas intra- and inter-day relative errors (%bias) were less than 11.1 and 7.3%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to preliminary screen four PAEs in urine samples from Thai children and adolescents. Since, the levels of PAEs metabolites have been found to associate with health conditions including precocious puberty in children. Measurement of their metabolites can be helpful in clinical application and can provide the basis for appropriate risk management measures.

Two Pleurotus Species (Pleurotaceae) From Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Author:Monthien Phonemany, Olivier Raspé, Phongeun Sysouphanthong, Allen Grace T. Niego, Naritsada Thongklang, Boontiya Chuankid and Kevin D. Hyde
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

Pleurotus is widely distributed and the most commonly cultivated edible mushroom genus worldwide. In addition to being widely consumed, some species have medical, biotechnological and environmental applications owing to their bioactivities. In this study, we report two Pleurotus species from Laos. Pleurotus djamor is reported for the first time from Laos, while P. giganteus a common species in Laos is also reported. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (nrITS) were performed in addition to the morphological analysis to confirm their identification. Full descriptions, color photo plates, micrographs, and taxonomic comparisons are provided.

Genetic Diversity of Thai Upland Rice Germplasm Based on Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats Marker
Author:Kajonphol Tanaporn, Nontakod Sujaree and Sangsiri Chontira
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

Upland rice is an important plant genetic resource for rice breeding programs due to the high level of genetic diversity with inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), drought tolerance and resistance to diseases and pests in Thailand. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of local rice at the molecular level using ISSR markers. The ISSR technique is simple based on high polymorphism in the genetic background. Fifty-four local rice accessions were genetically analyzed based on ISSR markers. All accessions were collected from upland areas in 14 provinces of Thailand. Thirty-seven primers were selected with 10 being high polymorphic primers. Ninety-six alleles were found in all germplasms with 53 polymorphic bands (55.35%). The ISSR841 primer had the highest number of bands (13), while ISSR834, ISSR835, ISSR841 and ISSR864 had the lowest number of bands (8). The similarity index was in the range 0.84-0.99. Clustering analysis of local rice using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean produced two main groups. The matrix correlation was 0.86. This research should be useful for evaluating rice germplasms from various areas and can be used as a database for rice breeding programs in the future.

The Numerical Visualization of Air Pollution Propagation from a Single Generator to an Observed Area
Author:Udomsak Rakwongwan, Arnon Archankul, Sanae Rujivan and Perter Bastian
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

This paper studies the propagation of the air pollutants released from a single generator such as an industrial chimney to an observed area such as a residential area or an agricultural land in two dimensions. The aims are to develop a model to visualize the propagation of the pollutants over time and to compute an average concentration of the pollutants on the observed area subject to various factors such as wind speed, the distance from the observed area to the generator, and how the pollutants are emitted. We model the problem as a system of partial differential equations composed of the Navier- Stokes and the advection-diffusion equations and numerically solve it by the finite element method. To illustrate the technique, we visualized the propagation of the pollutants for several emission case studies and computed their concentrations on an observed area over time.

Screening and Identification of Genes Related to Fibroblast Growth Factor 5 Hair Growth Regulation of the Liaoning cashmere Goat
Author:Mei Jin, Zi-wei Zhao, Jing-ai Piao, Rui Wang, Jun Piao and Feng-qin Zhao
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

This study was conducted to screen genes related to hair growth of the Liaoning cashmere goats with fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) treatments and study the molecular regulatory mechanisms of cashmere growth. FGF5 of different concentrations was used to treat skin fibroblasts of the Liaoning cashmere goats over several periods, and the total RNA of the fibroblasts was extracted. Subsequently, the expressed genes were screened by high-throughput sequencing, and the target genes were verified by qPCR. RNA-seq analysis showed that in the F4_24H, F4_72H, and F6_24H groups, 164, 189 and 123 transcripts were expressed in different amounts compared with the control group (group C). qPCR verification showed that the expression levels of OPN and ITGAV genes were up-regulated, which was consistent with the gene-sequencing analysis results obtained from F4_24H vs C group. The CCK-8 results showed that cell proliferation was the most pronounced in the F4_24H group. Therefore, FGF5 is verified to promote the proliferation of skin fibroblasts of Liaoning cashmere goats. Besides, in the F4_24H group, the OPN gene and its downstream ITGAV gene were demonstrated to enhance villus growth by regulating the ECM signaling pathway.

Contributions of Seagrasses and other Sources to Sea Cucumber Diets in a Tropical Seagrass Ecosystem
Author:Adonis Floren, Ken-ichi Hayashizaki, Piyalap Tuntiprapas and Anchana Prathep
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

A study was conducted to determine the fractional contributions of seagrasses and other sources to the sediment and the diet of the sea cucumbers Holothuria scabra and H. atra-leucospilota in a tropical seagrass meadow. The contribution from each source was estimated using the MixSIAR mixing model wherein the trophic enrichment factors of communities were integrated in the model. The results of the study suggest that the seagrass contribution to the sediment was coupled with the sea cucumber diet. Seagrass species contributed 32.0 % of the organic matter in the sediment while the contributions from the land plants, mangroves, microphytobenthos, coastal particulate organic matter, river particulate organic matter were 15.0, 14.4, 14.3, 13.2, and11.0 %, respectively. Subsequent assimilation of these sources by the sea cucumbers H. scabra and H. atra-leucospilota revealed that 61-70 % of their diet was derived from the seagrasses. This finding suggests these two sea cucumbers shared similar diet sources in the meadow as reflected in the similarity of proportional contributions of sources to their diets. The implications of this study may help in the conservation of sea cucumbers due to the destruction of seagrass habitats in many parts of the Southeast Asian region.

Simultaneous Determination of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Using Vortex-Assisted Liquid-Liquid Microextraction With Back Extraction Coupled With HPLC-UV
Author:Rania Edrees Adam Mohammad, Elbaleeq Adam Gubartallah, Abdalla Ahmed Elbashir, Bahruddin Saad, Noorfatimah Yahaya, Nur Nadhirah Mohamad Zain, Nurul Yani Rahim and Mazidatulakmam Miskam
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

A microextraction technique based on vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with back extraction (VALLME-BE) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV-Vis detector (HPLC-UV) was successfully developed for extraction and preconcentration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The procedure was carried out by adding butyl acetate into the working standard for VALLME step, followed by the back-extraction into sodium hydroxide for further preconcentration and clean-up. Under optimum conditions (NSAIDs concentration; 0.5 μg L−1; volume of sample; 10 mL; pH 3; volume of butyl acetate; 225 μL; vortex time; 105 s; 2250 rpm; back extraction; 20 μL NaOH (0.05 M); vortex speed; 2250 rpm; 60 s). The proposed technique provided good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9809), repeatability (% RSD 3.4 – 16.1%) with the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.015 - 0.134 μg L−1 and 0.047 - 0.407 μg L−1, respectively. Under this condition, the enrichment factors for the four NSAIDs were achieved between 219.2 and 379.7-folds. The developed VALLME-BE procedure resulted in a more selective and sensitive technique for the determination of NSAIDs in environmental water samples.

Adsorptive Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution over Graphite-layered Double Hydroxides Composite
Author:Neza Rahayu Palapa, Tarmizi Taher, Shahibul Fajri and Aldes Lesbani
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

In this paper, graphite (GP) has been composited with three different type of layered double hydroxides (LDH) namely NiAl-LDH/GP, CuAl-LDH/GP, and CaAl-LDH/GP by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized composites has been applied as an adsorbent for malachite green (MG) adsorption. The characterization of these materials was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. The x-ray powder diffractions of prepared materials showed the typical diffraction pattern of both pristine graphite and LDH. The BET surface of NiAl-LDH/GP, CuAl-LDH/GP, and CaAl-LDH/GP were 21.595 m2/g, 18.830 m2/g, and 27.358 m2/g, respectively. The adsorption characteristic of MG onto the synthesized materials were systematically examined, including the adsorption kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic. The adsorption kinetic of MG onto all the synthesized adsorbents followed the pseudo-second-order odel. The adsorption isotherm study indicated that the adsorption process was best fitted with the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 128.205 mg/g (CaAl- LDH/GP), 101.010 mg/g (CuAl-LDH/GP), and 100.000 mg/g (NiAl-LDH/GP). The adsorption thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and favorable in the higher temperature. Furthermore, all the tested adsorbent exhibited high reusability and stability even after the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle.

www.basidio.org: An Online Platform for the Classification, Identification and Nomenclature of Taxa within Basidiomycota
Author:Raghoonundon B, Zhao RL, He MQ, Boekhout T, Buyck B, Cui BK, Davoodian N, Geml J, Kakishima M, Li TH, McKenzie EHC, Raspé O, Vellinga EC, Verbeken A , Vizzini A and Hyde KD
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

Basidiomycota constitute a major phylum of the kingdom Fungi, distributed in 4 subphyla, 18 classes, 68 orders and 241 families. Advances in molecular phylogeny over the past years have resulted in numerous changes to their classification at a rapid pace. Consequently, a vast amount of taxonomic information is available in many publications. The website www.basidio.org/ is established with the aim of gathering and compiling these scattered data on a single platform. This website will provide an up-to-date outline of Basidiomycota, notes on orders, families and genera of Basidiomycota and updated accounts of each genus based on the most current literature, in a user-friendly way.

First Report of Botryosphaeriaceae Species on Camellia sinensis from Taiwan with a Global Checklist of Botryosphaeriaceae Species on this Host
Author:Achala R. Rathnayaka, K.W. Thilini Chethana, Alan J.L. Phillips, Jian-Kui Liu and Kevin D. Hyde
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

This study identified the Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) in Taiwan and provides the first global checklist of Botryosphaeriaceae species recorded on this plant. Four Botryosphaeriaceae species, Barriopsis archontophoenicis, Botryosphaeria dothidea, B. fabicerciana and Neofusicoccum parvum were recorded from Camellia sinensis based on morpho-molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses using SSU, LSU, ITS, tef1 and tub2. Botryosphaeria and Lasiodiplodia include the most common species recorded on tea worldwide. Comprehensive descriptions and illustrations are provided for the four Botryosphaeriaceae species reported in this study. These findings expand the knowledge of host and geo-distribution ranges of Botryosphaeriaceae species in Taiwan.

Resistive Switching in Diamondoid Counter Electrodes of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs)
Author:Sumeth Siriroj, Sekson Lowpa, Dulyawat Doonyapisut, Suppanut Sangphet, Hideki Nakajima, Ratchadaporn Supruangnet, Santi Maensiri, Vittaya Amornkitbamrung and Worawat Meevasana
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

We have prepared diamondoid (adamantane) coated on a silicon substrate via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique (ADA/Si: CVD) electrode. This electrode was used as a counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and this led to high short circuit current density (Jsc). The high Jsc can be explained by the resistive switching behavior of diamondoids films where the resistivity on the forward bias is lower than the reverse bias; this makes the transportation of electron at the interface between electrode and electrolyte become easier. By using ultraviolet/X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS/XPS), it was found that ADA/Si: CVD film component of 81% SP2 and 19% of SP3 hybridization of carbon investigated film can conduct and still have the interesting properties of the diamond, such as negative electron affinity (NEA). The Jsc of the ADA/Si: CVD counter electrode is high as 22.1 mA·cm−2 compared to 19.8 mA·cm−2 of Pt reference counter electrode. However, the efficiency of the ADA/Si: CVD counter electrode is lower than the Pt reference counter electrode because the films are low conductive and resulting in the fill factor (FF) of only 0.36. It indicates that we can improve this electrode by optimizing the CVD process conditions. These findings should provide an attractive route to improve DSSC efficiency with lower production costs as well as for catalytic applications spanning perovskite solar cells, supercapacitors, and photocatalytic cells.

Cytotoxicity of Aromatic Substituted Curcuminoid against Human Lung Cancer Cell Line
Author:Hien Van Nguyen, Van Thi Bich Pham and Hao Minh Hoang
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

We now focus on the synthesis of curcumin analogues (1-8) bearing -OCH3/-OH/-F substituents on the phenyl rings via base-catalyzed aldol condensations between various benzaldehydes with pentane- 2,4-dione. The analogues were subsequently tested for in vitro anticancer capacity against human lung cancer cell line (LU-1) by determining their half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50, μM). The presence of methoxy/hydroxy groups at meta-positions in aromatic rings of compounds (3, IC50 = 29.21±2.12 μM; 5, IC50 = 68.69±5.47 μM) exhibited higher anticancer activities, whereas analogues (2, 4) having similar substituents at para-positions displayed very poor activities when compared with curcumin (1, IC50 = 72.88±6.19 μM). Fluorinated curcuminoids (6, 7) showed inactivities. Remarkably, the level of inhibition of (8) containing 3-fluoro aromatic moiety was improved with an IC50 of 56.39±4.26 μM in this assay. The results indicated that the 3-substituted phenyl motifs are responsible for inhibition of LU-1 cell growth.

A Novel Rapid Ultrasonic Treatment for Acid Protease Extraction from Threadfin Bream and Lizardfish Stomachs and Their Biochemical Characterization
Author:Sakonwat Kuepethkaew, Srinivasan Damodaran and Sappasith Klomklao
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

Influence of extractants on acid proteases recovery from threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) and lizardfish (Saurida micropectoralis) stomachs using a conventional method was investigated. Extraction using Tris-HCl (50 mM, pH 7.0) comprising Tween 20 (0.2% v/v) from both fish species exhibited a higher acid protease activity recovery than other extractants investigated (P<0.05). Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of acid proteases from both species was also studied. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: an extraction time of 10 and 30 min (lizardfish and threadfin bream), an ultrasonic frequency of 24 kHz and an extraction temperature of 4°C. The optimal yield with UAE was slightly higher than that of conventional extraction. The stomach extract from threadfin bream and lizardfish exhibited maximal activities at 45 and 40°C, respectively, and had the same optimal pH at pH 2.0. Protease activities from both fish species were strongly inhibited by pepstatin A. ATP exhibited no change on activity and was activated by divalent cations (CaCl2, CoCl2, CuCl2 and MgCl2), indicating pepsin characteristics. The enzyme was tested as highly stable versus surfactants (Tween 80 and Triton X-100). The results suggested that major proteases in stomach of both fish species were pepsin-like aspartic proteases.

Predictive Factors of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rice Farmers, Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand
Author:Sarunya Thiphom, and Tippawan Prapamontol
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

Rice is an important economic crop in Thailand, but the risk of pesticide poisoning may unduly put rice farmers at risk. Assessing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in red blood cells by assay is an effective way to screen for organophosphates and carbamate effecting biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify predictive relationships between selected factors on AChE activity among rice farmers. The study recruited rice farmers (n=113) aged between 25 and 60 years old, who were considered to have occupational exposure to pesticides. Blood samples were tested for AChE activity and analyzed against different factors such as demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and pesticide protective behaviors using Pearson and Eta correlation coefficient. Finally, factors that were correlated with AChE were analyzed using multiple linear regression to determine which could predict pesticide exposure. Results: The factor most closely linked to AChE activity was gender. Females had lower levels of AChE activity than males (p = 0.021). Behaviors were also significantly correlated (r = 0.237, p = 0.012) with AChE activity. The prediction equation for this study was: Y = 5,693.0+ 805.7X1 + 282.2X2. Moreover, the knowledge was found almost significant (p = 0.057) with the AChE activity. Conclusions: The predictive factors for AChE activity among rice farmers were gender and behaviors. These factors together predicted 10.2% of the change in AChE activity. These findings highlight the importance of developing effective public health strategies to predict pesticide health risk as the preventive measures for pesticide exposure. Assessments screening for AChE activity in groups at risk, particularly females, are needed. Finally, the health care staff and interested organizations should promote appropriate protective behaviors among rice farmers as there was the strong link between behavior and the inhibition of AChE activity.

Acceleration of Acid-catalyzed Transesterification Reaction by Minimizing Glycerol to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Ratio
Author:Watcharin Rattanapong, Kulchanat Prasertsit and Chakrit Tongurai
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

This work aimed to study the acceleration of a slow acid catalyzed transesterification process, retarded by poor blending of two components in a liquid-liquid reaction. Reducing the solution viscosity was achieved by adding fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) into refined palm oil at the beginning of the reaction could improve miscibility and enhance the conversion of triglyceride to FAME. The study also focused on glycerol to FAME ratio on adding FAME. The results show that a lower glycerol to FAME ratio in a conventional reactor increases FAME generation. This can be applied in the two-step transesterification process by maintaining a low glycerol to FAME ratio. To achieve the required ester content of greater than 96.5%, the proposed second step transesterification in a multistage reactor with glycerol removal can reduce the reaction time by up to 91.2% in the second step using heterogeneous acid catalyst, or by 57.5% using acid catalyst in a conventional reactor, respectively.

Nutritional Aspects of Three Termitomyces and Four Other Wild Edible Mushroom Species from Sri Lanka
Author:Niranjan W. Gunasekara, Chandrika M. Nanayakkara, Samantha C. Karunarathna and Ravi L.C. Wijesundera
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

Species of Termitomyces are considered as a group of prime edible mushrooms owing to their unique meaty flavour and texture. Nutritional composition data of some species in this genus are scanty due to their rare and seasonal nature. On the other hand, the nutritional value of many Sri Lankan wild edible mushrooms remained unexplored. Therefore, proximate, mineral, fatty acid, amino acid, and free sugar compositions of T. eurrhizus, T. heimii, T. microcarpus, together with four other wild edible mushrooms (Auricularia sp., Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleurotus djamor and Schizophyllum commune) were investigated. Proximate and mineral compositions were examined using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) official methods. The fatty acid, amino acid and free sugar compositions were determined using chromatographic methods. Studied mushrooms showed 8.54-31.05% of crude protein, 1.21-12.35% crude fat and 22.81-69.13% available carbohydrate percentages on a dry weight basis (DW). The fraction of unsaturated fatty acids was over 60% of the total fatty acids and oleic acid was the major fatty acid. Total amino acid content varied between 0.80-6.87% DW and glutamic acid was the most abundant. Trehalose was the major sugar, and the content of glucose was insignificant. Species of Termitomyces showed the highest protein and lowest carbohydrate contents. Essential amino acids/total amino acid and essential amino acids/non-essential amino acids ratios of Termitomyces spp. were closer to the values recommended by FAO/WHO. Thus, Sri Lankan Temitomyces spp. demonstrated better nutritional properties compared to the other wild edible mushrooms included in the study.

QUANTUM THEORY AND FIVE QUANTUM PHENOMENA
Author:S. K. Srivastava
Vol. Vol.48 No.5 (September 2021) Page -
Anstract:

This investigation is concerned with the application of Order-Disorder Transformations (ODTs) of the author to five different phenomena: liquid phonon dynamics of disordered materials, thermionic emission, adiabatic demagnetization, radioactive α-radiation decay and Newtonian absolute concept and Einstein relativistic concept. All of these phenomena have been discussed in view of order-disorder concepts. The study revealed many secrets of these phenomena. The change in structural behavior in materials is due to order-disorder transformations. All five phenomena follow complete quantization behavior. A new formula for radioactive α-radiation decay has been propounded: E D = [ C / F ( x ) ] exp [ F ( - x ) ] = [ C / F ( x ) ] [ N ( t ) / N 0 ]. , where F ( x ) = λ t . This equation has been employed in describing the motion of radioactive α-radiant particles in both the longitudinal ( ω t ) and transverse ( ω λ ) directions, which follows the relationship, ( 1/2 ) ω λ ω t = ( 1/λ t ). ODTs have explained the absolute concept of the Newton and relativistic concepts of Einstein. Order – disorder concepts can explain about black holes. There exists no difference between order and disorder characteristics inside a black hole. That is a vacuum state where electro-magnetic field exists only due to the energy (EPh )O. Dark energy and dark space exist inside a black hole. Correlation between Heisenberg uncertainty concepts and the author’s ODT concepts follows a new definition of Planck’s constant ‘h’ . The description of ODTs in quantum and quantization aspects of different phenomena is discussed here and also the earlier justification pronouncing it as a Quantum theory.

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